University of Maryland


Copyright Notice

Necessity of Notice: An original work is protected under copyright law as soon as it is fixed in a tangible form. Copyright notices are not required under United States law for works created afte 1978 to claim copyright or the protections of copyright law. It is nonetheless useful to include a notice on all works, including on line web sites, to reinforce the protected nature of works and to inform persons who to contact for permission to reproduce a work.


Elements of copyright notice: The standard copyright notice consists of 4 elements:

  1. "Copyright" or "©" or both. The copyright symbol © is typically used in copyright notices and is required under the law of many foreign countries for copyright protection to attach.

  2. The year in which the work is first published.

  3. The name of the owner of copyright. The legal owner of copyright is the author or creator of the work unless the work is created by employees in the course of their employment or by persons hired for the purpose of creating a work, in which case the employer owns the copyright.

  4. To obtain copyright protection in some countries, the copyright notice must contain the phrase "All rights reserved." Variations of the phrase may also be used to suit your needs.


Sample notices from the most restrictive to the least restrictive:

  1. © 2001 University of Maryland. All rights reserved.

  2. © 2001 University of Maryland. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced, displayed, modified or distributed without the express prior written permission of the copyright holder. For permission, contact [insert e-mail or mailing address.]

  3. © 2001 University of Maryland. This work may be reproduced and redistributed, in whole or in part, without alteration and without prior written permission, solely by educational institutions for nonprofit administrative or educational purposes provided all copies contain the following statement: "© 2000 University of Maryland. This work is reproduced and distributed with the permission of the University of Maryland. No other use is permitted without the express prior written permission of the University of Maryland. For permission, contact [insert e-mail or mailing address.]"

  4. © 2001 University of Maryland. This work may be reproduced and redistributed, in whole or in part, without alteration and without prior written permission, provided all copies contain the following statement: "© 2000 University of Maryland. This work is reproduced and distributed with the permission of the University of Maryland."


For additional information visit the U. S. Copyright Office at www.copyright.gov or download the Copyright Notice (pdf)


The President's Legal Office has compiled this list of some of the most informative and useful on line resources copyright and copyright permissions to assist you in complying with Federal copyright law. For additional information and assistance, please contact the Legal Office. (301.405.2211)

General Information on Copyright


Copyright Permissions

General information
UTS: www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/permsrel.htm
How to investigate copyright ownership
LOC: lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/circs/
How to request permission and sample permission letters
UTS: www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/permmm.htm

Who to contact for permissions [sites with links to agencies listed below]
IUPUI: www.iupui.edu/~copyinfo/permit.html
LOC: www.loc.gov/copyright/resces.html

Music
BMI: www.bmi.com
SESAC: www.sesac.com
Text
Authors' Licensing & Collecting Society (UK and N. Ireland): www.alcs.co.uk
Christian Copyright Licensing International (CCLI): www.ccli.com
Copyright Clearance Center: www.copyright.com
Copyright Licensing Agency (UK): www.cla.co.uk
icopyright: http://www.icopyright.com [new on-line service with document delivery element]
National Writers' Union: www.nlightning.com/e-money.html

Images, photographs
Artists Rights Foundation: www.artistsrights.org
American Society of Media Photographers: www.asmp.org
Picture Network International: www.asmp.org
Plays [addresses available through UTS site]
Samuel French, Inc.
Baker's Plays
Dramatists Play Services, Inc.
Music Theatre International (Major musicals)

Movies, other
Motion Picture Licensing Corporation (MPLC): www.mplc.com



Copyright 1999 University of Maryland
Prepared by Office of the Provost and Office of Legal Affairs